The best oil is steam distilled from the crushed, dried or partially dried, ripe berries (fruits). The shrub, Juniperus communis, grows wild all over Central and Southern Europe, South-West Asia, Northern Asia, North Africa, and North America. The best berries are collected in Northern Italy, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and France. Juniperberry Oil is water-white or very pale yellow, mobile oil, having a fresh, yet warm, rich-balsamic, woody-sweet and pine-needle-like odour. The flavour of the oil is warm, slightly bitter-aromatic, balsamic and rich. The bitterness is quite persistent at all levels of dilution. Juniperberry Oil is used in perfumery for its fresh-balsamic notes, as a modifier for various pine needle oils (with which it blends very well), with citrus oils in room spray perfumes, in ambres, fougeres, chypres, after-shave fragrances, spice compositions, colognes, etc. In flavour, it is customary to use a sesquiterpeneless oil, produced from a high-grade true Juniperberry Oil. The natural oil is poorly soluble in ethyl alcohol.